Unity and Plurality offers novel methods of brooding about plurality whereas casting new mild at the interconnections one of the logical, philosophical, and linguistic points of plurals. the amount brings jointly new paintings at the good judgment and ontology of plurality and at the semantics of plurals in typical language. Plural reference, the view that certain plurals similar to 'the scholars' check with numerous entities right now (the person students), is an strategy favoured by way of logicians and philosophers, who take sentences with plurals ('the scholars gathered') to not be dedicated to entities past participants, entities akin to sessions, sums, or units. against this, linguistic semantics has been ruled by means of a singularist method of plurals, taking the semantic worth of a distinct plural comparable to 'the scholars' to be a mereological sum or set. additionally, semantics has been ruled by way of a selected ontological view of plurality, that of extensional mereology. This quantity goals to construct a bridge among the 2 traditions and to teach the fruitfulness of nonstandard mereological ways. A staff of prime specialists investigates new views that come up from plural common sense and non-standard mereology and discover novel purposes to common language phenomena.
By Barry Schein
How can we make experience of sentences with plural noun words in them? In Plurals and occasions, Barry Schein proposes combining a second-order therapy of plurals with Donald Davidson's recommendation that there are positions for connection with occasions in usual predicates so one can account for numerous of the extra confusing gains of plurals with no invoking "plural objects," with its attendant metaphysics, and likewise supply an absolute truth-theoretic characterization of the semantics of sentences with plurals in them. Schein's hugely unique argument must have major influence on how natural-language semantics is completed, with repercussions for philosophy and logic.The e-book opens with foundational arguments that the logical language must have 4 significant positive aspects: relief to singular predication through a Davidsonian logical shape, amereology of occasions, a logical syntax that permits the elements of a Davidsonian research to be predicated of precise occasions and separated from each other via different logical parts, and descriptive anaphors that cross-refer to the occasions defined through antecedent clauses. A semantics for plurality and quantification is built within the ultimate chapters, which deal with the various empirical and formal questions raised by means of the diversity of interpretations during which plurals and quantifiers participate.Barry Schein is Assistant Professor of Linguistics on the collage of Southern California.
Semantic priming has been a spotlight of study within the cognitive sciences for greater than thirty years and is usually used as a device for investigating different features of notion and cognition, equivalent to be aware popularity, language comprehension, and data representations. Semantic Priming: views from reminiscence and note popularity examines empirical and theoretical developments within the knowing of semantic priming, offering a succinct, in-depth assessment of this crucial phenomenon, framed when it comes to types of reminiscence and versions of note recognition.
The first part examines types of semantic priming, together with spreading activation types, the verification version, compound-cue versions, disbursed community types, and multistage activation versions (e.g. interactive-activation model).
The moment part examines matters and findings that experience performed an extremely very important function in checking out versions of priming and comprises chapters at the following subject matters: methodological concerns (e.g. counterbalancing of fabrics, number of priming baselines); computerized vs. strategic priming; associative vs. “pure” semantic priming; mediated priming; long term semantic priming; backward priming; subconscious priming; the prime-task influence; checklist context results; results of note frequency, stimulus caliber, and stimulus repetition; and the cognitive neuroscience of semantic priming.
The booklet closes with a precis and a dialogue of promising new learn directions.
The quantity might be of curiosity to a variety of researchers and scholars within the cognitive sciences and neurosciences.
By Leonard Talmy
During this two-volume set Leonard Talmy defines the sector of cognitive semantics. He methods the query of ways language organizes conceptual fabric either at a basic point and through studying a vital set of specific conceptual domain names: area and time, movement and site, causation and strength interplay, and a focus and standpoint. Talmy keeps that those are one of the so much basic parameters during which language constructions perception. via combining those conceptual domain names into an built-in complete, Talmy indicates, we improve our knowing of the general conceptual and semantic constitution of usual language. quantity 1 examines the elemental platforms through which language shapes innovations. quantity 2 units forth typologies based on which strategies are established and the procedures during which they're dependent.
Fifteen specifically written papers study the ways that the content material of what we are saying depends at the context during which we are saying it. on the centre of the present debate in this topic is Cappelen and Lepore's declare that context-sensitivity in language is healthier captured by way of a mixture of semantic minimalism and speech act pluralism. utilizing this concept as their start line, the individuals to this quantity enhance various diverse perspectives concerning the function of context in verbal exchange, and display its wide-ranging implications for all concerns within the philosophy of language and linguistics.
Cross-linguistic semantics – investigating how languages package deal and convey meanings otherwise – is crucial to the linguistic quest to appreciate the character of human language. This set of reports explores and demonstrates cross-linguistic semantics as practised within the usual semantic metalanguage (NSM) framework, originated through Anna Wierzbicka. the outlet chapters provide a cutting-edge review of the NSM version, suggest numerous theoretical thoughts and enhance a couple of unique analyses in reference to names and naming, clefts and different specificational sentences, and discourse anaphora. next chapters describe and examine varied phenomena in ten languages from a number of households, geographical destinations, and cultural settings world wide. 3 big reports rfile how the metalanguage of NSM semantic primes should be realised in languages of largely different types: Amharic (Ethiopia), Korean, and East Cree. every one constitutes a lexicogrammatical portrait in miniature of the language involved. different chapters probe issues resembling inalienable ownership in Koromu (Papua New Guinea), epistemic verbs in Swedish, hyperpolysemy in Bunuba (Australia), the expression of "momentariness" in Berber, ethnogeometry in Makasai (East Timor), price thoughts in Russian, and “virtuous feelings” in eastern. This ebook may be worthy for linguists engaged on language description, lexical semantics, or the semantics of grammar, for complex scholars of linguistics, and for others drawn to language universals and language range.
By Anna Wierzbicka
This publication develops the twin issues that languages can vary commonly of their vocabularies, and also are delicate indices to the cultures to which they belong. Wierzbicka seeks to illustrate that each language has "key concepts," expressed in "key words," which replicate the middle values of a given tradition. She indicates that cultures might be revealingly studied, in comparison, and defined to outsiders via their key options, and that the analytical framework helpful for this goal is supplied by way of the "natural semantic metalanguage," in keeping with lexical universals, that the writer and associates have constructed at the foundation of wide-ranging cross-linguistic investigations. beautiful to anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers in addition to linguists, this e-book demonstrates that cultural styles may be studied in a verifiable, rigorous, and non-speculative approach, at the foundation of empirical facts and in a coherent theoretical framework.
The honoree of this Festschrift has for a few years now marked sleek developments in diachronic and synchronic linguistics via his personal courses and via stimulating these of various others. This number of articles offers data-oriented experiences that combine smooth and conventional methods within the box, therefore reflecting the honoree's contribution to modern linguistics. The articles relate to comparative info from (early) Indo-European languages and numerous different languages and speak about the theoretical implications of phenomena reminiscent of linguistic universals, reconstruction, and language class.
Cet ouvrage suggest une examine inédite du lexique chromatique : le mot de couleur y est analysé systématiquement dans une viewpoint syntactico-sémantique ainsi que constructionnelle. Premièrement, l’étude se focalise sur los angeles position d’unités comme rouge au sein du lexique en les comparant aux noms de qualité auxquels ils sont à tort assimilés, puis aux autres termes chromatiques, noms (couleur, nuance …) et verbes (colorer, nuancer …). los angeles seconde partie définit les unités chromatiques matters d’opérations de development : l. a. conversion (framboise), los angeles composition (rouge opéra, vert Véronèse) et l’assemblage syntaxiforme (bleu de Prusse, rouge tyrien). Un nom étant toujours intégré, l. a. relation entre propriété chromatique et référent (nom commun, nom propre) est au centre de l. a. description.
By Salah Mejri
Cet ouvrage essaie de croiser langues et cultures à travers le prisme de l. a. phraséologie. L’étude de l. a. phraséologie, qu’elle soit menée dans un cadre monolingue ou contrastif, à partir de genres discursifs généraux ou spécifiques, conduit au même constat : los angeles phraséologie se nourrit de los angeles tradition et l. a. tradition se fait langue ; elle en conditionne les spécificités et en détermine les emplois. Elle représente dans tous les cas de determine un processus sous-jacent à l. a. dynamique des langues et à l’expression des spécificités culturelles des communautés linguistiques.